Current challenges in photoprotection. - PubMed - NCBI
Electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges all produce biologic effects. Ultraviolet filters are the most well-studied photoprotective measure for the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Because of the reported endocrinologic effects of oxybenzone in animal studies, its effects on coral reefs, and its photocontact allergy potential, its use has been minimized in many countries worldwide. New developments in topical antioxidants and oral and subcutaneous agents (eg, Polypodium leucotomos extract, afamelanotide, nicotinamide) with photoprotective and antiphotocarcinogenic properties could potentially provide addition modalities for protection against the effects of visible light and infrared radiation.